The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to Psycho Manabe, Klaus Hasselman and Giorgio Parisi.

The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded Tuesday to three scientists whose work “laid the foundation for our knowledge of the Earth’s climate and how humanity affects it.”

The winners are Psycho Manabe of Princeton University, Klaus Hasselman of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, and Giorgio Parisi of the University of Sapienza, Rome.

The work of these three is essential to understanding how the world’s climate is changing and how human behavior is affecting those changes.

“The discoveries that are being recognized this year prove that our knowledge of climate depends on a solid scientific basis based on a thorough analysis,” said Thors Hans-Hanson, president of the Nobel Committee on Physics.

Complex systems such as climate are often defined by their disorder. This year’s winners helped bring understanding to the seemingly chaotic, by describing those systems and predicting their long-term behavior.

Dr. Manabe has shown how the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases and raises the surface temperature of the earth.

“In the 1960s, he led the development of physical models of the Earth’s climate and was the first to explore the interaction between radiation balance and the vertical transport of air masses.” “His work has laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.”

Dr. Haselman, a decade later, created a model linking weather and climate, “the answer to the question of why climate models can be reliable despite the weather being variable and chaotic,” the Nobel Committee said in a statement.

Dr. Paris Parisi’s discoveries were described as “among the most important contributions to the theory of complex systems”.

He is credited with discovering the interaction of disorders and fluctuations in the physical system from the atom to the planetary scale.

“They make it possible to understand and describe a variety of seemingly completely random materials and phenomena, not only in physics, but also in mathematics, biology, neuroscience and machine learning,” the committee said.

Dr. Has Hasselman is a German physicist and oceanographer who has greatly improved the public’s understanding of climate change by creating a model that combines climate and chaotic weather systems. Born in Hamburg in 1931, he received his PhD. 1957 from the University of G গttingen, Germany. He is a professor at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg. He is also known as the Global Climate Forum.

Dr. Manabe is a senior meteorologist and climate expert at Princeton University, whose research has laid the foundation for current climate models to show how carbon dioxide levels lead to higher temperatures on Earth’s surface. Born in 1931 in Shingu, Japan, he earned his PhD. From the University of Tokyo in 1957.

Dr. Paris Parisi is an Italian theoretical physicist who was born in Rome in 1948 and whose research has focused on quantum field theory, statistical mechanics and complex systems. He got his PhD. From the University of Sapienza in Rome, Italy in 1970. In 1980, he was responsible for discovering patterns hidden in chaotic complex materials. He is a professor at the University of Sapienza in Rome.

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