The ‘impossible’ particle adds a piece to the powerful ball puzzle

This spring, a At a meeting of the Quark Physics Group at Syracuse University, Ivan Polyakov announced that he had uncovered a fingerprint of a semi-mythical particle.

“It simply came to our notice then. Are you wrong ‘

Polyakov left and double-checked his analysis data from the Large Hadron Collider Beauty (LHCB) test as part of the Syracuse group. Evidence has been kept. This showed that a particular set of four elementary particles called quarks could form a rigid cycle contrary to what most theorists believe. The LHCB collaboration reported the discovery of the compound particle, called the double-skin tetracark, at a conference in July and in two research papers posted earlier this month that are now undergoing peer review.

The unexpected discovery of the double-skin tetraquark highlights an uncomfortable fact. Although physicists know the exact equation that defines strong energy – the fundamental energy that combines quarks to form protons and neutrons in the heart of an atom, as well as other composite particles such as tetraquark – they can rarely solve this strange, endless repetitive energy equation. Struggles to predict.

Tetraquark now presents theorists with a solid goal against which to test their mathematical instruments for estimating powerful forces. Respecting their predictions represents the main expectation of physicists to understand how the atom behaves inside and outside – and to dissociate the effects of quarks from the subtle signs of new fundamental particles that physicists have.

Quark cartoon

The bizarre thing about quarks is that physicists can approach them in two levels of complexity. In the 1960s, by combining newly discovered compound particles with a zoo, they created a cartoonish “quark model” that simply states that quarks glow together in three complementary sets to form protons, neutrons and other baryons, while pairs of quark are different types of mason particles. Creates.

Gradually, a profound theory known as quantum chromodynamics (QCD) emerged. It tends to draw protons by tying “gluon” particles with a kind of mass of quark, a carrier of strong energy. Experiments have confirmed many aspects of QCD, but no known mathematical technique can systematically unravel the central equations of theory.

Somehow, the quark model may stand for a more complex truth, at least when it comes to the manor of the Barion and Mason invented in the 20th century. But the model failed to predict the transient tetraquark and five-quark “pentacquarkus” that appeared in the 2000s. These extraterrestrial particles certainly originated from QCD, but for almost 20 years, theorists have been puzzled about how.

“We still don’t know the pattern, which is embarrassing,” said Eric Breton, a particle theorist at Ohio State University.

The new TetraCark sharpens the mystery.

This was demonstrated in the LHCB experiment in the wreckage of about 200 collisions, where protons hit each other 40 million times per second, giving the quarks countless opportunities in all the ways that nature allows. Quarks come in six “flavors” of the masses, while heavy quarks are rarely seen. Each of these 200 odd collisions generates enough energy to create two interestingly flavored quarks, more than lightweight quarks containing protons but less than the huge “beauty” quarks of LHCB’s main quarries. The middleweight leather quarks came close enough to attract each other and to rope in two lightweight anticoagulants. Poliakov’s analysis suggests that the four quarks came together for a glorious 12 sectillion fraction of a second, before a power fluctuation split the two extra quarks and the group into three masons.

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