No matter what we are shopping for, there is almost always a positive relationship between quality and price.
So why, on Wall Street everywhere, would the best managers charge less?
Study after study has come to the conclusion that the lower the fee of an active fund on average, the higher its net performance. As a result, it is now common for both private and institutional investors to have an expense-to-expense ratio when choosing investments. Indeed, the latest Morningstar Fund Fee Study revealed that in 2019, 93% of the total new money in active strategies flowed into the fund at least 10% of the cost. Clearly, investors have become allergic to paying the average fee.
In a high quality and uniform quality commodity market, cheap is actually good. If there are two adjacent gas stations, for example, most people are happy to sell the octane of their choice for less than a penny.
Passive index funds are also products, as long as they provide adequate liquidity and the benchmark intensively tracks them to replicate. In Economy 101, we find that the price of a commodity is equal to its marginal cost. So, what does Fidelity’s algorithm cost to create a new stock of index-tracking mutual funds? Apparently not too much, since those fees have now come down to zero.
Actively managed funds, by contrast, are anything other than products. Their very purpose is to provide a different return stream than their competitors, and can lead to a huge dispersion between top and bottom performers in a particular category.
First-class tickets aren’t cheaper than flying coaches, and that doesn’t mean tennis champions get paid less than ball boys and girls. Therefore, the constant search for a cost-versus-performance relationship lagging behind in active funds is highly contradictory. Why would we screen for bargain-bin funds in search of star managers?
In fact, highly skilled managers Tax Charge more: They are called hedge funds. If top-fee-quartile mutual funds seem expensive, try paying a 5% management charge and a 44% performance fee to honor the investment in Renaissance Technologies ’medallion strategy.
Although an inverse relationship between cost ratio and performance actually develops, it is a misconception to use this fact as a basis to support low cost funding. Here is the reason:
Suppose a given fund manager has no edge: in other words, their relative performance is an act of fortune-telling. Over time, their funding will be expected to reflect its standards on a gross basis. Since managers add no value, the more they charge, the worse their funds are compared to their counterparts: in the end, net performance is only equal to the benchmark of manager’s fees.
Unfortunately, this phenomenon describes the most active long-only funds. Depending on the samples and methods used, research consistently shows that managers over 60% to 90% show no lasting advantage over a passive benchmark.
From where the statistical relationship comes back. Not that the best managers give discounts; It is that the market is overwhelmed by a huge number of strategies that fail to add value to their costs. As a result, if we have to randomly select an active fund without observing the skills of our manager, our best bet would be to choose the cheapest. This is because we probably want to end up with one of the many underformers – in this case the less we pay the better.
Here this argument is flat. In order for an investor to logically allocate money to an active fund first, they need to believe that their proper labor process can accurately measure value. If they have no way of clever skills, taking the opportunity to end up with an extraordinary fund is a bet with long adversity. Instead, they should only buy a passive index, because even the cheapest incompetent manager does not have to pay for the benchmark exposure to come virtually free.
If the investor By There is a way to evaluate quality, then cost ratio is not important at all. Rather, the only thing they care about is the ability to provide a fund Fake Its fees, after its fees. For example, if the Renaissance allows new assets in its medallion fund, investors stand in line to buy.
Since skilled managers pay a price for their investors, naturally they gain more value in the form of fees than their unskilled colleagues. This makes it unlikely that the best managers are funded at the lowest cost. As a result, fee-based screening is a particularly bad idea, and can remove strong funding from the start.
Incidentally, if the myopic focus of investors on the fund continues, high-powered portfolio managers will exit the market over time and be replaced by their employers with their low-cost stand-in. In the extreme case a market failure where there is only “lemon”. If this happens, the active fund will not be eligible to buy at any cost.
Takeway? Investors should be agnostic to the perfect fee, and instead rank their value-added net cost investment options. If they are not equipped to do this properly, they will be better served by avoiding the risks and costs of active management in favor of a low cost index.
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All posts are the author’s opinion. As such, they should not be construed as investment advice, or the opinions expressed must not reflect the views of the CFA Institute or the author’s employer.
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