The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI), produced by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative, also found in the nine specific ethnic groups surveyed, more than 50 per cent of the population is trapped in poverty.
In some cases, the disparity between ethnic and racial groups is greater than in regions within a country. More than that, inequality across the ethnicity index, in all 109 countries and above all other variables.
In addition to income, the index measures poverty using a variety of indicators, including poor health, inadequate education, and poor living standards.
The study for the report was conducted in 109 countries, covering 5.9 billion people and presenting a racial / ethnic / racial inequality for 41 nations.
Within a country, multidimensional poverty can vary widely among different ethnic groups.
In Latin America, for example, indigenous peoples are the poorest. In Bolivia, the indigenous population represents about 44 percent of the population, but multidimensionally represents 75 percent of the poorest people.
According to the UNDP, the figures are even clearer in India, where five out of six people in this condition were of “lower tribes or castes”.
In proposing a solution to this problem, the authors cite the example of two poor ethnic groups in the Gambia, whose indices have roughly the same values, but have different disadvantages, to show that different policy measures are needed to find effective solutions for different cases.
Focusing on gender, the report shows that worldwide, about two-thirds of multidimensional poor people, or 836 million, live in families where no woman or girl has finished school for at least six years.
In addition, one-sixth of all people in this situation, about 215 million, live in families where at least one boy or man has completed six or more years of schooling, but no girl or woman.
The report further found that these women and girls are at risk of intimate partner violence.
The main discovery
Studied in 109 countries, a total of 1.3 billion people are multidimensionally poor.
About half of them, 644 million, children under the age of 18; And about 85 percent live in sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia. More than 67% live in middle-income countries.
Living in multidimensional poverty can mean a lot of different things.
For example, about 1 billion people face health risks due to solid cooking fuels, another one billion live with inadequate sanitation, and another billion have substandard housing.
At least one malnourished family has about 788 million people living and about 568 million 30-minute roundtrip walks lack improved drinking water.
For the UNDP administrator, Achim Steiner, it is a reminder that “people need a complete picture of how they are being affected by poverty, who they are and where they live.”
Mr. Steiner also highlighted the cause of the Kovid-1 pandemic epidemic, saying the international community was still “intervening to understand its full effects.”
Although multidimensional poverty is still high, some countries showed signs of progress, at least until the beginning of the epidemic.
Of the five nations and five billion people who have data over time, 70 have reduced their multidimensional poverty index in less than a year. The fastest changes have occurred in Sierra Leone and Togo.
Sabina Alkair, director of OPH at Oxford University, stressed the need to fix structural inequalities that are oppressive and hinder progress.
For him, segregating multidimensional poverty data by race, ethnicity, caste, and gender “exposes inequality and creates an important guideline for policymakers not to leave anyone behind in the last decade for action.”